Schema style guide#


  • Avoid multiple representations of the same fact where possible. A user should, ideally, have a single way of answering a given question. Having multiple representations of the same fact also introduces the possibility of inconsistent values. Some exceptions:

    • The fact is external to the contracting process but serves a common need. For example, a supplier ID from a company register is sufficient to identify it. However, it is a common need to get the supplier’s name. As such, we include a field for the supplier’s name, so that users can avoid the extra step of performing a lookup against the corporate register.

    • The fact is calculated from details that are unpublished. For example, many jurisdictions don’t publish unsuccessful bidders. As such, we include a numberOfTenderers field, in addition to a tenderers array.

  • Avoid adding fields for facts that can be calculated from other fields. This introduces the possibility of inconsistent values. Some exceptions:

    • The fact can’t be calculated in all cases. For example, a tender notice might specify a contract period’s durationInDays, before its startDate and endDate are known.

    • The fact is calculated from details that are unpublished. For example, many jurisdictions don’t publish unsuccessful bidders. As such, we include a numberOfTenderers field, in addition to a tenderers array.

Normative statements#


The current version of the OCDS schema and documentation (1.1.3) does not comply with these recommendations.

  • Normative statements should be constructed using the keywords defined in RFC2119.

  • Non-normative statements should not use the keywords defined in RFC2119, see this Internet-Draft for appropriate synonyms.

  • Normative statements should not use constructions such as “should always”, “should only” or “where possible … must”. The appropriate normative keyword should be used instead, e.g. “must” in place of “should always”.

  • Normative statements must be consistent with the OCDS schema, e.g. ocid is a required field in the schema so:

    • “the ocid field must be provided” is consistent.

    • “the ocid field should be provided” is inconsistent.

  • When referring to extensions it is not necessary to explicitly state that they are optional.


Properties and definitions#

The top level of the schema is split between properties and definitions. The latter contains objects that may be re-used, by reference, in multiple locations across the schema. Each of these can be thought of as a “Class”, and its name is capitalized accordingly. Whenever you consider that an object or structure might be re-used in a different area of the standard, it should be included in definitions.

Subschema (definition)#

  • The period object should be used in place of year or month fields.

  • The identifier object should be used when referencing identifiers from external sources, e.g. {"id": "12345678", "scheme": "IBAN"} rather than "ibanID": "12345678".

JSON Schema keyword order#

The order of keywords is: semantics, data type, type-specific keywords, and deprecation notice.

The order of type-specific keywords is: sub-fields, validation keywords in hierarchical order (e.g. codelist, openCodelist, enum) or alphabetic order if equal hierarchy (e.g. maximum, minimum), merge behavior, and validation keywords added by OCDS Kit (least informative).

  • title

  • description

  • $ref or type

  • If type includes object:

    • required

    • properties

    • minProperties

  • If type includes array:

    • items

    • codelist

    • openCodelist

    • wholeListMerge

    • uniqueItems

    • minItems

  • If type includes string:

    • codelist

    • openCodelist

    • enum

    • format

    • pattern

    • versionId

    • minLength

  • If type includes number or integer:

    • maximum

    • minimum

    • exclusiveMinimum

  • deprecated

ID field#

Objects that are not contained within an array can include an id field to support cross-referencing, or to disclose the object’s real-world identifier.

When creating a compiled release, arrays of objects have different merging behaviors depending on whether the schema specifies an id field. To decide whether to specify an id field:

  • If no id field is specified, the array is merged as a whole. Make the merging behavior explicit by setting "wholeListMerge": true. This is appropriate if:

    • A publisher is expected to publish array entries at the same time, like additionalClassifications.

    • A publisher is expected to correct the array as a whole.

    • The array’s semantics are release-specific, in which case the schema should also set "omitWhenMerged": true.

  • If an id field is specified, the array is merged by identifier – unless the schema sets "wholeListMerge": true. This is appropriate if:

    • A publisher is expected to publish array entries at different times, like contracts.


id values also play a special role in Flatten Tool.

Details field#

A codelist field can be paired with a xDetails string field, which can be used for:

  • Free text details on the codelist value

  • A more detailed set of classifications from a publisher’s systems

Use of xDetails fields can help increase acceptance of a closed codelist.

For example, a jurisdiction may have five procurement procedures, named A, B, C, D and E. The procurementMethod field uses a closed codelist (‘open’, ‘selective’, ‘limited’, ‘direct’) to which its procedures should be mapped. The procurementMethodDetails field then allows the jurisdiction to publish the original names of its procedures.

Entered field#

A field can be paired with a xEntered field, which can be used when:

  • The data is sometimes entered manually

  • The data has known quality issues

For example:

  • A data entry form might allow users to select an identifier scheme from a dropdown, or to enter its name manually if it is not in the list. The scheme field would be used for dropdown entries and a schemeEntered field for manual entries.

  • The publication system can detect unreasonable amounts (e.g. missing decimal separators due to human error). The amount field would be used for reasonable amounts and an amountEntered field for unreasonable amounts.

With this pattern, users can more easily analyze values in the original field, without needing to clean, filter or deduplicate them.

That said, the semantics of the two fields are very close, with the only distinctions being the data collection method and/or the data quality. As such, only use this pattern if the field supports important use cases.

Additional array#

An object field can be paired with a additionalX array field, which can be used when:

  • A data owner has one or more values for a field

  • One of those values can be considered in some way ‘primary’

  • A number of use cases can be met by looking only at the primary value

For example, a source system might record the company registration number and VAT identifier of a company. If we had a single parties.identifier object, the data owner would have to pick which identifier to use, and would be omitting data that could help some users to identify an organization. If we only had an array of parties.identifiers, then the data structure for the simple case (only one identifier) becomes more complex, and it is not possible to indicate any priority between the identifiers.

Validation keywords#

  • Date fields must use "format": "date-time".

  • URL fields must use "format": "uri".

  • Number fields should use minimum, maximum and/or exclusiveMinimum, if appropriate.

  • The default keyword shouldn’t be used, because consumers aren’t expected to fill in defaults.

The following keywords are added by ocdskit schema-strict:

  • Array fields should set "uniqueItems": true.

  • Required array fields must use "minItems": 1.

  • Required object fields must use "minProperties": 1.

  • Required string fields must use "minLength": 1, unless enum, format or pattern is used.

The following keywords aren’t used, and their absence is validated by standard-maintenance-scripts:

  • additionalItems

  • additionalProperties

  • dependencies

  • exclusiveMaximum

  • maxItems

  • maxLength

  • maxProperties

  • multipleOf

  • allOf

  • anyOf

  • not

  • items with an array value


To add support for new keywords, you likely need to:

  • Update the Data Review Tool

allOf, anyOf, oneOf, and items with an array value use JSON Schema draft 4’s schemaArray. To add support for these keywords, you likely need to also:

Types and null#

Any non-required field pointing to a literal or an array of literals should support a type of null, e.g.:

  "status": {
    "title": "Contract status",
    "type": [

Allowing properties to be null is important to the merging process, in which null is used to remove a value from the compiled release.

Any non-required field pointing to an array of objects should not allow null as a value; array entries should be explicitly tagged for removal following the pattern outlined in #232.

If the type property has a single value, use a string instead of an array:

   "type": "string"

Field and code names#

  • Check other standards for preferred terms.

  • Use lower camelCase for field names, e.g. awardCriteriaDetails.

  • Use upper CamelCase for definitions entries, e.g. Award.

  • Put the qualifier before the concept, e.g. enquiryPeriod rather than periodOfEnquiry.


    Date fields might appear inconsistent: there’s startDate, endDate, maxExtentDate, dueDate but also datePublished, dateSigned, dateModified, dateMet. The reasons are:

    • External consistency, e.g. uses startDate, endDate but also datePublished, dateModified.

    • Internal consistency, e.g. the fields of the Period object follow the *Date pattern.

    • Term frequency, e.g. “due date” occurs more frequently in English than “date due”.

  • Don’t abbreviate words, e.g. minimumParticipants not minParticipants.

  • Use singular for fields pointing to an object or literal value.

  • Use plural for fields pointing to an array of values.

  • Field names should not include their parent’s name, e.g. title not tenderTitle, description not awardDescription, etc.


Many terms from OCDS 1.0 were poorly chosen; however, they can’t be renamed until OCDS 2.0. For example, the semantics of the tender object are “first stage,” with many publishers using that object to invite requests to participate.

Until OCDS 2.0, publishers must use the tender term, and not choose their own terms, in order to maintain interoperability. The choice of a term is cosmetic; it’s not semantic. A field’s description, not its name, is semantic.

Field and code titles#

  • Use sentence case.

  • Field titles should not include their parent’s title, e.g. Title not Tender title, Description not Award description, etc.

Field and code descriptions#

  • The first sentence:

    • Must be distinct between fields.

    • Should be a noun phrase, not a sentence. For example, for buyer:

      • Good: “The organization aiming to conclude a contract with a supplier or […]”

      • Bad: “A buyer is an entity whose […]”

    • Should be written in a neutral voice, rather than addressing a particular audience. For example, for tender/submissionMethod:

      • “The methods by which bids are submitted, using the open submissionMethod codelist.” uses a neutral voice.

      • “Specify the method(s) by which bids can be submitted” addresses publishers rather than users.

  • Subsequent sentences may provide information or guidance to assist publishers to use the field effectively or users to interpret the field effectively. Guidance sentences should be grounded in clear user needs and implementation experience of common pitfalls or errors.

  • Descriptions for similar fields or codes should be consistent with each other where possible, without discarding information relevant to a specific field.

  • Descriptions of core concepts should be compared to those in this crosswalk, which collects definitions from other sources like UNCITRAL, GPA, EU, etc.


    The descriptions of OCDS terms are not kept up-to-date.

  • For fields or codes whose names and titles use complex or specialist language, consider providing an example to aid non-expert users, e.g.





Fiscal commitments and contingent liabilities reports

Reports detailing the fiscal commitments of the public authority to the PPP, for example known payments that must be made if the PPP proceeds or payment commitments whose occurrence, timing and magnitude depend on some uncertain future event, outside the control of the public authority.

Descriptions should:

  • Balance the needs of expert users, for whom the description serves to assure that use of the field or code is appropriate, and non-expert users, for whom the description of the code serves to help them understand how the field or code is used and whether it is likely to contain the information they are looking for.

  • Be concise and avoid using exhaustive lists.

Descriptions should not:

  • Link to definitions provided on external websites.

  • Explicitly state whether a field is required or optional.

  • Simply restate the title or name of a field or code.

  • Declare the type of the field: for example, “A list”, “A true/false field”, “free text”, etc.

The following examples can be used to inform descriptions for common types of fields in the schema. Additional information, specific to a particular field, should be provided in a separate sentence after the primary description of the field.


Assuming the rest of the guidance is followed, it is recommended to start the description with:

  • “Whether”, for a boolean field.

  • “Information about”, for a high-level sub-schema. For example:

    • “Information about the awards. […]” for awards.

    • “The value of the contract. […]” for Contract.value. Value is a low-level sub-schema.

  • “The” with a plural noun phrase, for the description of an array of strings.

  • “A” or “An”, for the description of a sub-schema that is used in the context of an array.

In other cases, start with “The”, though this guidance may be updated with additional cases.


<semantics>, using the <open/closed> <name> codelist.


The methods by which bids are submitted, using the open submissionMethod codelist. See also the submissionMethodDetails field.


For the id field of items in arrays:

The locally unique identifier for the <object_name>.


The locally unique identifier for the document.


For the title field of an object:

The title of the <object_name>.


For the description field of an object:

The description of the <object_name>.


The description of the document. The description should not exceed 250 words. If the document is not accessible online, the description may describe how to obtain a copy.


For the documents field of an object:

Documents and attachments related to the <object_name>, including any official notices.


For the milestones field of an object:

Important dates or events associated with the <object_name>.

Deprecation descriptions#

For the deprecated.description property:


  • Deprecation with replacement:

    This field is deprecated in favor of country, to promote standardized country codes instead of non-standardized country names.

  • Deprecation without replacement:

    This field is deprecated, because the approach to data modelling that it supports was not pursued.

For the changelog entry:

  • Deprecation with replacement:

    Deprecate the `<dot.path>` <field|code|codelist> in favor of the new `<dot.path>` <field|code|codelist>, to <goal>.
  • Deprecation without replacement:

    Deprecate the `<dot.path>` <field|code|codelist>, because <reason>.


  • Deprecate some fields:

    • Address.countryName in favor of the new field, to promote standardized country codes instead of non-standardized country names.

    • initiationType, because the approach to data modelling that it supports was not pursued.